A patchy apache

How did the Apache webserver get its name? One of the explanations was the following:

In the early days of Linux some people noticed that a Linux webserver would be great. There already was an open source webserver (I forgot the name) but it was the work of a very big team of hackers and coders. Every time a bug was corrected, a new patch was issued. After a few years, there were so many patches that virtually no original code was in it any more. Then, according to legend, some engineer seemed to have uttered "This is A PATCHY webserver" A PACHEE webserver. The Apache Webserver. And so the webserver got a great name.

Strange behaviour

I haven't been doing a lot with CGI software the last, say, 10 years. But I only publish material online when it works. So all the sources in this section used to give clean compiles and worked as CGI software. Period.

End of 2020. Covid-19 is unmasked as a virus that makes people crazy of fear. And governments crazy for power, if they can exploit that fear among it's voters. I start doing some CGI tests again (why not? We're all doomed anyway.) and suddenly I get a lot of errors. Something has changed. Internal server errors. Failed to connect. 403 errors.

CGI's won't run

Now this happened before. About 15 years ago. I solved it by using the webhoster as my sandbox.... This time I wanted to find out how I could instruct Apache to serve the CGI software from localhost. It should be possible.

It took a lot of effort but in the end, the only (and best) documentation was a tutorial inside Apache... I had to remove one '#' in the Apache conf file /etc/httpd/httpd.conf:

<IfModule !mpm_prefork_module>
   LoadModule cgid_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_cgid.so
   # changed #
</IfModule>
   
If I change something in a conf-file I put a '# changed #' marker after it so it is easier to undo changes. Next you have to restart the Apache by the command (as root)
/etc/rc.d/rc.httpd restart
which solved part of the problems but not all. Now at least the programs would run.

Failed to connect

You get this error when you want to run a CGI file from https://localhost/foo/bar/ack since localhost almost never has a secure server certificate (and doesn't need one). Change it to http://localhost/ and you're good to go again.

Internal server error

Finally you got the 's' out of https://localhost/ and the files still do not do what you designed them for. The file runs but you get the dreaded 500: internal server error. Next you have to look at the last part of the apache error log file:

tail /var/log/httpd/error_log
which lists the last five lines. The very last line read:
[Sat Dec 05 18:31:23.578414 2020] [http:error] [pid 1029:tid 2860514112] [client 127.0.0.1:42328] AH02429: Response
header name 'Content-Type ' contains invalid characters, aborting request, referer: http://localhost/jan/test/access.html
   
It took me some time to figure out what this could have meant. The source code of the CGI's had this in it:
WriteString ("Content-Type : text/plain");
and what invalid characters could I find in this text? The hyphen? The colon? One of the two spaces? After some testing it turned out to be that the currect Apache demands no spaces between the colon and the content-type. This was a bit of a disappointment. Linux is famous for it's text-only configuration files, in which whitespace is never a reason to cause glitches. Yet the patchy server makes a lot of fuzz about ne silly piece of white.

And a blast from the past

CGI : Apache 2 executing programs

After having installed Slackware 14.2 on Oxygen, I couldn't get my CGI executables running. In the best case, I would get a popup window asking me if I wanted to download the executable... It turns out, my new system uses Apache 2.x and 2.x has another kind of configuration file. It took some tinkering and trial and error since the new conf file has less explanation than the conf of Apache 1.x In the end I succeeded by telling the system that I had 2 CGI bins. As can be seen in the screenshot on the right.


Apache configuration file

Below is my current /etc/httpd/httpd.conf file.

#
# This is the main Apache HTTP server configuration file.  It contains the
# configuration directives that give the server its instructions.
# See <URL:http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.4/> for detailed information.
# In particular, see 
# <URL:http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.4/mod/directives.html>
# for a discussion of each configuration directive.
#
# Do NOT simply read the instructions in here without understanding
# what they do.  They're here only as hints or reminders.  If you are unsure
# consult the online docs. You have been warned.  
#
# Configuration and logfile names: If the filenames you specify for many
# of the server's control files begin with "/" (or "drive:/" for Win32), the
# server will use that explicit path.  If the filenames do *not* begin
# with "/", the value of ServerRoot is prepended -- so "logs/access_log"
# with ServerRoot set to "/usr/local/apache2" will be interpreted by the
# server as "/usr/local/apache2/logs/access_log", whereas "/logs/access_log" 
# will be interpreted as '/logs/access_log'.

#
# ServerRoot: The top of the directory tree under which the server's
# configuration, error, and log files are kept.
#
# Do not add a slash at the end of the directory path.  If you point
# ServerRoot at a non-local disk, be sure to specify a local disk on the
# Mutex directive, if file-based mutexes are used.  If you wish to share the
# same ServerRoot for multiple httpd daemons, you will need to change at
# least PidFile.
#
ServerRoot "/usr"

#
# Mutex: Allows you to set the mutex mechanism and mutex file directory
# for individual mutexes, or change the global defaults
#
# Uncomment and change the directory if mutexes are file-based and the default
# mutex file directory is not on a local disk or is not appropriate for some
# other reason.
#
# Mutex default:/var/run

#
# Listen: Allows you to bind Apache to specific IP addresses and/or
# ports, instead of the default. See also the <VirtualHost>
# directive.
#
# Change this to Listen on specific IP addresses as shown below to 
# prevent Apache from glomming onto all bound IP addresses.
#
#Listen 12.34.56.78:80
Listen 80

#
# Dynamic Shared Object (DSO) Support
#
# To be able to use the functionality of a module which was built as a DSO you
# have to place corresponding `LoadModule' lines at this location so the
# directives contained in it are actually available _before_ they are used.
# Statically compiled modules (those listed by `httpd -l') do not need
# to be loaded here.
#
# Example:
# LoadModule foo_module modules/mod_foo.so
#
LoadModule authn_file_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_authn_file.so
#LoadModule authn_dbm_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_authn_dbm.so
#LoadModule authn_anon_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_authn_anon.so
#LoadModule authn_dbd_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_authn_dbd.so
#LoadModule authn_socache_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_authn_socache.so
LoadModule authn_core_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_authn_core.so
LoadModule authz_host_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_authz_host.so
LoadModule authz_groupfile_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_authz_groupfile.so
LoadModule authz_user_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_authz_user.so
#LoadModule authz_dbm_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_authz_dbm.so
#LoadModule authz_owner_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_authz_owner.so
#LoadModule authz_dbd_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_authz_dbd.so
LoadModule authz_core_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_authz_core.so
#LoadModule authnz_ldap_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_authnz_ldap.so
LoadModule access_compat_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_access_compat.so
LoadModule auth_basic_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_auth_basic.so
#LoadModule auth_form_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_auth_form.so
#LoadModule auth_digest_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_auth_digest.so
#LoadModule allowmethods_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_allowmethods.so
#LoadModule file_cache_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_file_cache.so
#LoadModule cache_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_cache.so
#LoadModule cache_disk_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_cache_disk.so
#LoadModule cache_socache_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_cache_socache.so
#LoadModule socache_shmcb_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_socache_shmcb.so
#LoadModule socache_dbm_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_socache_dbm.so
#LoadModule socache_memcache_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_socache_memcache.so
#LoadModule watchdog_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_watchdog.so
#LoadModule macro_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_macro.so
#LoadModule dbd_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_dbd.so
#LoadModule dumpio_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_dumpio.so
#LoadModule echo_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_echo.so
#LoadModule buffer_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_buffer.so
#LoadModule data_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_data.so
#LoadModule ratelimit_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_ratelimit.so
LoadModule reqtimeout_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_reqtimeout.so
#LoadModule ext_filter_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_ext_filter.so
#LoadModule request_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_request.so
#LoadModule include_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_include.so
LoadModule filter_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_filter.so
#LoadModule reflector_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_reflector.so
#LoadModule substitute_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_substitute.so
#LoadModule sed_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_sed.so
#LoadModule charset_lite_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_charset_lite.so
#LoadModule deflate_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_deflate.so
#LoadModule xml2enc_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_xml2enc.so
#LoadModule proxy_html_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_proxy_html.so
LoadModule mime_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_mime.so
#LoadModule ldap_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_ldap.so
LoadModule log_config_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_log_config.so
#LoadModule log_debug_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_log_debug.so
#LoadModule log_forensic_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_log_forensic.so
#LoadModule logio_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_logio.so
LoadModule env_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_env.so
#LoadModule mime_magic_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_mime_magic.so
#LoadModule expires_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_expires.so
LoadModule headers_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_headers.so
#LoadModule usertrack_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_usertrack.so
#LoadModule unique_id_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_unique_id.so
LoadModule setenvif_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_setenvif.so
LoadModule version_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_version.so
#LoadModule remoteip_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_remoteip.so
#LoadModule proxy_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_proxy.so
#LoadModule proxy_connect_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_proxy_connect.so
#LoadModule proxy_ftp_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_proxy_ftp.so
#LoadModule proxy_http_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_proxy_http.so
#LoadModule proxy_fcgi_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_proxy_fcgi.so
#LoadModule proxy_scgi_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_proxy_scgi.so
#LoadModule proxy_fdpass_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_proxy_fdpass.so
#LoadModule proxy_wstunnel_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_proxy_wstunnel.so
#LoadModule proxy_ajp_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_proxy_ajp.so
#LoadModule proxy_balancer_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_proxy_balancer.so
#LoadModule proxy_express_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_proxy_express.so
#LoadModule proxy_hcheck_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_proxy_hcheck.so
#LoadModule session_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_session.so
#LoadModule session_cookie_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_session_cookie.so
#LoadModule session_dbd_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_session_dbd.so
#LoadModule slotmem_shm_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_slotmem_shm.so
#LoadModule slotmem_plain_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_slotmem_plain.so
#LoadModule ssl_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_ssl.so
#LoadModule dialup_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_dialup.so
#LoadModule lbmethod_byrequests_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_lbmethod_byrequests.so
#LoadModule lbmethod_bytraffic_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_lbmethod_bytraffic.so
#LoadModule lbmethod_bybusyness_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_lbmethod_bybusyness.so
#LoadModule lbmethod_heartbeat_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_lbmethod_heartbeat.so
LoadModule mpm_event_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_mpm_event.so
#LoadModule mpm_prefork_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_mpm_prefork.so
#LoadModule mpm_worker_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_mpm_worker.so
LoadModule unixd_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_unixd.so
#LoadModule heartbeat_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_heartbeat.so
#LoadModule heartmonitor_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_heartmonitor.so
#LoadModule dav_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_dav.so
LoadModule status_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_status.so
LoadModule autoindex_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_autoindex.so
#LoadModule asis_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_asis.so
#LoadModule info_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_info.so
<IfModule !mpm_prefork_module>
	LoadModule cgid_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_cgid.so
	# changed #
</IfModule>
<IfModule mpm_prefork_module>
	#LoadModule cgi_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_cgi.so
</IfModule>
#LoadModule dav_fs_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_dav_fs.so
#LoadModule dav_lock_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_dav_lock.so
#LoadModule vhost_alias_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_vhost_alias.so
#LoadModule negotiation_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_negotiation.so
LoadModule dir_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_dir.so
#LoadModule actions_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_actions.so
#LoadModule speling_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_speling.so
#LoadModule userdir_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_userdir.so
LoadModule alias_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_alias.so
#LoadModule rewrite_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_rewrite.so

<IfModule unixd_module>
#
# If you wish httpd to run as a different user or group, you must run
# httpd as root initially and it will switch.  
#
# User/Group: The name (or #number) of the user/group to run httpd as.
# It is usually good practice to create a dedicated user and group for
# running httpd, as with most system services.
#
User apache
Group apache

</IfModule>

# 'Main' server configuration
#
# The directives in this section set up the values used by the 'main'
# server, which responds to any requests that aren't handled by a
# <VirtualHost> definition.  These values also provide defaults for
# any <VirtualHost> containers you may define later in the file.
#
# All of these directives may appear inside <VirtualHost> containers,
# in which case these default settings will be overridden for the
# virtual host being defined.
#

#
# ServerAdmin: Your address, where problems with the server should be
# e-mailed.  This address appears on some server-generated pages, such
# as error documents.  e.g. admin@your-domain.com
#
ServerAdmin you@example.com

#
# ServerName gives the name and port that the server uses to identify itself.
# This can often be determined automatically, but we recommend you specify
# it explicitly to prevent problems during startup.
#
# If your host doesn't have a registered DNS name, enter its IP address here.
#
#ServerName www.example.com:80

#
# Deny access to the entirety of your server's filesystem. You must
# explicitly permit access to web content directories in other 
# <Directory> blocks below.
#
<Directory />
    AllowOverride none
    Require all denied
</Directory>

#
# Note that from this point forward you must specifically allow
# particular features to be enabled - so if something's not working as
# you might expect, make sure that you have specifically enabled it
# below.
#

#
# DocumentRoot: The directory out of which you will serve your
# documents. By default, all requests are taken from this directory, but
# symbolic links and aliases may be used to point to other locations.
#
DocumentRoot "/srv/httpd/htdocs"
<Directory "/srv/httpd/htdocs">
    #
    # Possible values for the Options directive are "None", "All",
    # or any combination of:
    #   Indexes Includes FollowSymLinks SymLinksifOwnerMatch ExecCGI MultiViews
    #
    # Note that "MultiViews" must be named *explicitly* --- "Options All"
    # doesn't give it to you.
    #
    # The Options directive is both complicated and important.  Please see
    # http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.4/mod/core.html#options
    # for more information.
    #
    Options Indexes FollowSymLinks ExecCGI

    #
    # AllowOverride controls what directives may be placed in .htaccess files.
    # It can be "All", "None", or any combination of the keywords:
    #   AllowOverride FileInfo AuthConfig Limit
    #
    AllowOverride None

    #
    # Controls who can get stuff from this server.
    #
    Require all granted
</Directory>

#
# DirectoryIndex: sets the file that Apache will serve if a directory
# is requested.
#
<IfModule dir_module>
    DirectoryIndex index.html
</IfModule>

#
# The following lines prevent .htaccess and .htpasswd files from being 
# viewed by Web clients. 
#
<Files ".ht*">
    Require all denied
</Files>

#
# ErrorLog: The location of the error log file.
# If you do not specify an ErrorLog directive within a <VirtualHost>
# container, error messages relating to that virtual host will be
# logged here.  If you *do* define an error logfile for a <VirtualHost>
# container, that host's errors will be logged there and not here.
#
ErrorLog "/var/log/httpd/error_log"

#
# LogLevel: Control the number of messages logged to the error_log.
# Possible values include: debug, info, notice, warn, error, crit,
# alert, emerg.
#
LogLevel warn

<IfModule log_config_module>
    #
    # The following directives define some format nicknames for use with
    # a CustomLog directive (see below).
    #
    LogFormat "%h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %b \"%{Referer}i\" \"%{User-Agent}i\"" combined
    LogFormat "%h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %b" common

    <IfModule logio_module>
      # You need to enable mod_logio.c to use %I and %O
      LogFormat "%h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %b \"%{Referer}i\" \"%{User-Agent}i\" %I %O" combinedio
    </IfModule>

    #
    # The location and format of the access logfile (Common Logfile Format).
    # If you do not define any access logfiles within a <VirtualHost>
    # container, they will be logged here.  Contrariwise, if you *do*
    # define per-<VirtualHost> access logfiles, transactions will be
    # logged therein and *not* in this file.
    #
    CustomLog "/var/log/httpd/access_log" common

    #
    # If you prefer a logfile with access, agent, and referer information
    # (Combined Logfile Format) you can use the following directive.
    #
    #CustomLog "/var/log/httpd/access_log" combined
</IfModule>

<IfModule alias_module>
    #
    # Redirect: Allows you to tell clients about documents that used to 
    # exist in your server's namespace, but do not anymore. The client 
    # will make a new request for the document at its new location.
    # Example:
    # Redirect permanent /foo http://www.example.com/bar

    #
    # Alias: Maps web paths into filesystem paths and is used to
    # access content that does not live under the DocumentRoot.
    # Example:
    # Alias /webpath /full/filesystem/path
    #
    # If you include a trailing / on /webpath then the server will
    # require it to be present in the URL.  You will also likely
    # need to provide a <Directory> section to allow access to
    # the filesystem path.

    #
    # ScriptAlias: This controls which directories contain server scripts. 
    # ScriptAliases are essentially the same as Aliases, except that
    # documents in the target directory are treated as applications and
    # run by the server when requested rather than as documents sent to the
    # client.  The same rules about trailing "/" apply to ScriptAlias
    # directives as to Alias.
    #
    ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ "/srv/httpd/cgi-bin/"


</IfModule>

<IfModule cgid_module>
    #
    # ScriptSock: On threaded servers, designate the path to the UNIX
    # socket used to communicate with the CGI daemon of mod_cgid.
    #
    #Scriptsock cgisock
</IfModule>

#
# "/srv/httpd/cgi-bin" should be changed to whatever your ScriptAliased
# CGI directory exists, if you have that configured.
#
<Directory "/srv/httpd/cgi-bin">
    AllowOverride None
    Options +ExecCGI
    AddHandler cgi-script .cgi .pl 
    Require all granted
</Directory>

<IfModule headers_module>
    #
    # Avoid passing HTTP_PROXY environment to CGI's on this or any proxied
    # backend servers which have lingering "httpoxy" defects.
    # 'Proxy' request header is undefined by the IETF, not listed by IANA
    #
    RequestHeader unset Proxy early
</IfModule>

<IfModule mime_module>
    #
    # TypesConfig points to the file containing the list of mappings from
    # filename extension to MIME-type.
    #
    TypesConfig /etc/httpd/mime.types

    #
    # AddType allows you to add to or override the MIME configuration
    # file specified in TypesConfig for specific file types.
    #
    #AddType application/x-gzip .tgz
    #
    # AddEncoding allows you to have certain browsers uncompress
    # information on the fly. Note: Not all browsers support this.
    #
    #AddEncoding x-compress .Z
    #AddEncoding x-gzip .gz .tgz
    #
    # If the AddEncoding directives above are commented-out, then you
    # probably should define those extensions to indicate media types:
    #
    AddType application/x-compress .Z
    AddType application/x-gzip .gz .tgz

    #
    # AddHandler allows you to map certain file extensions to "handlers":
    # actions unrelated to filetype. These can be either built into the server
    # or added with the Action directive (see below)
    #
    # To use CGI scripts outside of ScriptAliased directories:
    # (You will also need to add "ExecCGI" to the "Options" directive.)
    #
    #AddHandler cgi-script .cgi

    # For type maps (negotiated resources):
    #AddHandler type-map var

    #
    # Filters allow you to process content before it is sent to the client.
    #
    # To parse .shtml files for server-side includes (SSI):
    # (You will also need to add "Includes" to the "Options" directive.)
    #
    #AddType text/html .shtml
    #AddOutputFilter INCLUDES .shtml
</IfModule>

#
# The mod_mime_magic module allows the server to use various hints from the
# contents of the file itself to determine its type.  The MIMEMagicFile
# directive tells the module where the hint definitions are located.
#
#MIMEMagicFile /etc/httpd/magic

#
# Customizable error responses come in three flavors:
# 1) plain text 2) local redirects 3) external redirects
#
# Some examples:
#ErrorDocument 500 "The server made a boo boo."
#ErrorDocument 404 /missing.html
#ErrorDocument 404 "/cgi-bin/missing_handler.pl"
#ErrorDocument 402 http://www.example.com/subscription_info.html
#

#
# MaxRanges: Maximum number of Ranges in a request before
# returning the entire resource, or one of the special
# values 'default', 'none' or 'unlimited'.
# Default setting is to accept 200 Ranges.
#MaxRanges unlimited

#
# EnableMMAP and EnableSendfile: On systems that support it, 
# memory-mapping or the sendfile syscall may be used to deliver
# files.  This usually improves server performance, but must
# be turned off when serving from networked-mounted 
# filesystems or if support for these functions is otherwise
# broken on your system.
# Defaults: EnableMMAP On, EnableSendfile Off
#
#EnableMMAP off
#EnableSendfile on

# Supplemental configuration
#
# The configuration files in the /etc/httpd/extra/ directory can be 
# included to add extra features or to modify the default configuration of 
# the server, or you may simply copy their contents here and change as 
# necessary.

# Server-pool management (MPM specific)
#Include /etc/httpd/extra/httpd-mpm.conf

# Multi-language error messages
#Include /etc/httpd/extra/httpd-multilang-errordoc.conf

# Fancy directory listings
#Include /etc/httpd/extra/httpd-autoindex.conf

# Language settings
#Include /etc/httpd/extra/httpd-languages.conf

# User home directories
#Include /etc/httpd/extra/httpd-userdir.conf

# Real-time info on requests and configuration
#Include /etc/httpd/extra/httpd-info.conf

# Virtual hosts
#Include /etc/httpd/extra/httpd-vhosts.conf

# Local access to the Apache HTTP Server Manual
#Include /etc/httpd/extra/httpd-manual.conf

# Distributed authoring and versioning (WebDAV)
#Include /etc/httpd/extra/httpd-dav.conf

# Various default settings
#Include /etc/httpd/extra/httpd-default.conf

# Configure mod_proxy_html to understand HTML4/XHTML1
<IfModule proxy_html_module>
Include /etc/httpd/extra/proxy-html.conf
</IfModule>

# Secure (SSL/TLS) connections
#Include /etc/httpd/extra/httpd-ssl.conf
#
# Note: The following must must be present to support
#       starting without SSL on platforms with no /dev/random equivalent
#       but a statically compiled-in mod_ssl.
#
<IfModule ssl_module>
SSLRandomSeed startup builtin
SSLRandomSeed connect builtin
</IfModule>


# Uncomment the following line to enable PHP:
#
#Include /etc/httpd/mod_php.conf

# Uncomment the following lines (and mod_dav above) to enable svn support:
#
#LoadModule dav_svn_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_dav_svn.so
#LoadModule authz_svn_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_authz_svn.so    
   

Page created on Dec 5, 2020 and

Apache configuration file

Below is my /etc/httpd/httpd.conf file. The changes I made are in red.

#
# This is the main Apache HTTP server configuration file.  It contains the
# configuration directives that give the server its instructions.
# See <URL:http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.4/> for detailed information.
# In particular, see 
# <URL:http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.4/mod/directives.html>
# for a discussion of each configuration directive.
#
# Do NOT simply read the instructions in here without understanding
# what they do.  They're here only as hints or reminders.  If you are unsure
# consult the online docs. You have been warned.  
#
# Configuration and logfile names: If the filenames you specify for many
# of the server's control files begin with "/" (or "drive:/" for Win32), the
# server will use that explicit path.  If the filenames do *not* begin
# with "/", the value of ServerRoot is prepended -- so "logs/access_log"
# with ServerRoot set to "/usr/local/apache2" will be interpreted by the
# server as "/usr/local/apache2/logs/access_log", whereas "/logs/access_log" 
# will be interpreted as '/logs/access_log'.

#
# ServerRoot: The top of the directory tree under which the server's
# configuration, error, and log files are kept.
#
# Do not add a slash at the end of the directory path.  If you point
# ServerRoot at a non-local disk, be sure to specify a local disk on the
# Mutex directive, if file-based mutexes are used.  If you wish to share the
# same ServerRoot for multiple httpd daemons, you will need to change at
# least PidFile.
#
ServerRoot "/usr"

#
# Mutex: Allows you to set the mutex mechanism and mutex file directory
# for individual mutexes, or change the global defaults
#
# Uncomment and change the directory if mutexes are file-based and the default
# mutex file directory is not on a local disk or is not appropriate for some
# other reason.
#
# Mutex default:/var/run

#
# Listen: Allows you to bind Apache to specific IP addresses and/or
# ports, instead of the default. See also the <VirtualHost>
# directive.
#
# Change this to Listen on specific IP addresses as shown below to 
# prevent Apache from glomming onto all bound IP addresses.
#
#Listen 12.34.56.78:80
Listen 80

#
# Dynamic Shared Object (DSO) Support
#
# To be able to use the functionality of a module which was built as a DSO you
# have to place corresponding `LoadModule' lines at this location so the
# directives contained in it are actually available _before_ they are used.
# Statically compiled modules (those listed by `httpd -l') do not need
# to be loaded here.
#
# Example:
# LoadModule foo_module modules/mod_foo.so
#
LoadModule authn_file_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_authn_file.so
#LoadModule authn_dbm_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_authn_dbm.so
#LoadModule authn_anon_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_authn_anon.so
#LoadModule authn_dbd_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_authn_dbd.so
#LoadModule authn_socache_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_authn_socache.so
LoadModule authn_core_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_authn_core.so
LoadModule authz_host_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_authz_host.so
LoadModule authz_groupfile_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_authz_groupfile.so
LoadModule authz_user_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_authz_user.so
#LoadModule authz_dbm_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_authz_dbm.so
#LoadModule authz_owner_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_authz_owner.so
#LoadModule authz_dbd_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_authz_dbd.so
LoadModule authz_core_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_authz_core.so
#LoadModule authnz_ldap_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_authnz_ldap.so
LoadModule access_compat_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_access_compat.so
LoadModule auth_basic_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_auth_basic.so
#LoadModule auth_form_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_auth_form.so
#LoadModule auth_digest_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_auth_digest.so
#LoadModule allowmethods_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_allowmethods.so
#LoadModule file_cache_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_file_cache.so
#LoadModule cache_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_cache.so
#LoadModule cache_disk_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_cache_disk.so
#LoadModule cache_socache_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_cache_socache.so
#LoadModule socache_shmcb_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_socache_shmcb.so
#LoadModule socache_dbm_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_socache_dbm.so
#LoadModule socache_memcache_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_socache_memcache.so
#LoadModule watchdog_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_watchdog.so
#LoadModule macro_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_macro.so
#LoadModule dbd_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_dbd.so
#LoadModule dumpio_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_dumpio.so
#LoadModule echo_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_echo.so
#LoadModule buffer_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_buffer.so
#LoadModule data_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_data.so
#LoadModule ratelimit_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_ratelimit.so
LoadModule reqtimeout_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_reqtimeout.so
#LoadModule ext_filter_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_ext_filter.so
#LoadModule request_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_request.so
#LoadModule include_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_include.so
LoadModule filter_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_filter.so
#LoadModule reflector_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_reflector.so
#LoadModule substitute_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_substitute.so
#LoadModule sed_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_sed.so
#LoadModule charset_lite_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_charset_lite.so
#LoadModule deflate_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_deflate.so
#LoadModule xml2enc_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_xml2enc.so
#LoadModule proxy_html_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_proxy_html.so
LoadModule mime_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_mime.so
#LoadModule ldap_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_ldap.so
LoadModule log_config_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_log_config.so
#LoadModule log_debug_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_log_debug.so
#LoadModule log_forensic_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_log_forensic.so
#LoadModule logio_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_logio.so
LoadModule env_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_env.so
#LoadModule mime_magic_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_mime_magic.so
#LoadModule expires_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_expires.so
LoadModule headers_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_headers.so
#LoadModule usertrack_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_usertrack.so
#LoadModule unique_id_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_unique_id.so
LoadModule setenvif_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_setenvif.so
LoadModule version_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_version.so
#LoadModule remoteip_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_remoteip.so
#LoadModule proxy_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_proxy.so
#LoadModule proxy_connect_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_proxy_connect.so
#LoadModule proxy_ftp_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_proxy_ftp.so
#LoadModule proxy_http_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_proxy_http.so
#LoadModule proxy_fcgi_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_proxy_fcgi.so
#LoadModule proxy_scgi_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_proxy_scgi.so
#LoadModule proxy_fdpass_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_proxy_fdpass.so
#LoadModule proxy_wstunnel_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_proxy_wstunnel.so
#LoadModule proxy_ajp_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_proxy_ajp.so
#LoadModule proxy_balancer_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_proxy_balancer.so
#LoadModule proxy_express_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_proxy_express.so
#LoadModule proxy_hcheck_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_proxy_hcheck.so
#LoadModule session_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_session.so
#LoadModule session_cookie_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_session_cookie.so
#LoadModule session_dbd_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_session_dbd.so
#LoadModule slotmem_shm_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_slotmem_shm.so
#LoadModule slotmem_plain_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_slotmem_plain.so
#LoadModule ssl_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_ssl.so
#LoadModule dialup_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_dialup.so
#LoadModule lbmethod_byrequests_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_lbmethod_byrequests.so
#LoadModule lbmethod_bytraffic_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_lbmethod_bytraffic.so
#LoadModule lbmethod_bybusyness_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_lbmethod_bybusyness.so
#LoadModule lbmethod_heartbeat_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_lbmethod_heartbeat.so
LoadModule mpm_event_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_mpm_event.so
#LoadModule mpm_prefork_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_mpm_prefork.so
#LoadModule mpm_worker_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_mpm_worker.so
LoadModule unixd_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_unixd.so
#LoadModule heartbeat_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_heartbeat.so
#LoadModule heartmonitor_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_heartmonitor.so
#LoadModule dav_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_dav.so
LoadModule status_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_status.so
LoadModule autoindex_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_autoindex.so
#LoadModule asis_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_asis.so
#LoadModule info_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_info.so
	
<IfModule !mpm_prefork_module>
	LoadModule cgid_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_cgid.so
	# changed #
</IfModule>
	
<IfModule mpm_prefork_module>
	#LoadModule cgi_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_cgi.so
</IfModule>
#LoadModule dav_fs_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_dav_fs.so
#LoadModule dav_lock_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_dav_lock.so
#LoadModule vhost_alias_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_vhost_alias.so
#LoadModule negotiation_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_negotiation.so
LoadModule dir_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_dir.so
#LoadModule actions_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_actions.so
#LoadModule speling_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_speling.so
#LoadModule userdir_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_userdir.so
LoadModule alias_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_alias.so
#LoadModule rewrite_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_rewrite.so

<IfModule unixd_module>
#
# If you wish httpd to run as a different user or group, you must run
# httpd as root initially and it will switch.  
#
# User/Group: The name (or #number) of the user/group to run httpd as.
# It is usually good practice to create a dedicated user and group for
# running httpd, as with most system services.
#
User apache
Group apache

</IfModule>

# 'Main' server configuration
#
# The directives in this section set up the values used by the 'main'
# server, which responds to any requests that aren't handled by a
# <VirtualHost> definition.  These values also provide defaults for
# any <VirtualHost> containers you may define later in the file.
#
# All of these directives may appear inside <VirtualHost> containers,
# in which case these default settings will be overridden for the
# virtual host being defined.
#

#
# ServerAdmin: Your address, where problems with the server should be
# e-mailed.  This address appears on some server-generated pages, such
# as error documents.  e.g. admin@your-domain.com
#
ServerAdmin you@example.com

#
# ServerName gives the name and port that the server uses to identify itself.
# This can often be determined automatically, but we recommend you specify
# it explicitly to prevent problems during startup.
#
# If your host doesn't have a registered DNS name, enter its IP address here.
#
#ServerName www.example.com:80

#
# Deny access to the entirety of your server's filesystem. You must
# explicitly permit access to web content directories in other 
# <Directory> blocks below.
#
<Directory />
    AllowOverride none
    Require all denied
</Directory>

#
# Note that from this point forward you must specifically allow
# particular features to be enabled - so if something's not working as
# you might expect, make sure that you have specifically enabled it
# below.
#

#
# DocumentRoot: The directory out of which you will serve your
# documents. By default, all requests are taken from this directory, but
# symbolic links and aliases may be used to point to other locations.
#
DocumentRoot "/srv/httpd/htdocs"
<Directory "/srv/httpd/htdocs">
    #
    # Possible values for the Options directive are "None", "All",
    # or any combination of:
    #   Indexes Includes FollowSymLinks SymLinksifOwnerMatch ExecCGI MultiViews
    #
    # Note that "MultiViews" must be named *explicitly* --- "Options All"
    # doesn't give it to you.
    #
    # The Options directive is both complicated and important.  Please see
    # http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.4/mod/core.html#options
    # for more information.
    #
    
    Options Indexes FollowSymLinks ExecCGI
    

    #
    # AllowOverride controls what directives may be placed in .htaccess files.
    # It can be "All", "None", or any combination of the keywords:
    #   AllowOverride FileInfo AuthConfig Limit
    #
    AllowOverride None

    #
    # Controls who can get stuff from this server.
    #
    Require all granted
</Directory>

#
# DirectoryIndex: sets the file that Apache will serve if a directory
# is requested.
#
<IfModule dir_module>
    DirectoryIndex index.html
</IfModule>

#
# The following lines prevent .htaccess and .htpasswd files from being 
# viewed by Web clients. 
#
<Files ".ht*">
    Require all denied
</Files>

#
# ErrorLog: The location of the error log file.
# If you do not specify an ErrorLog directive within a <VirtualHost>
# container, error messages relating to that virtual host will be
# logged here.  If you *do* define an error logfile for a <VirtualHost>
# container, that host's errors will be logged there and not here.
#
ErrorLog "/var/log/httpd/error_log"

#
# LogLevel: Control the number of messages logged to the error_log.
# Possible values include: debug, info, notice, warn, error, crit,
# alert, emerg.
#
LogLevel warn

<IfModule log_config_module>
    #
    # The following directives define some format nicknames for use with
    # a CustomLog directive (see below).
    #
    LogFormat "%h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %b \"%{Referer}i\" \"%{User-Agent}i\"" combined
    LogFormat "%h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %b" common

    <IfModule logio_module>
      # You need to enable mod_logio.c to use %I and %O
      LogFormat "%h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %b \"%{Referer}i\" \"%{User-Agent}i\" %I %O" combinedio
    </IfModule>

    #
    # The location and format of the access logfile (Common Logfile Format).
    # If you do not define any access logfiles within a <VirtualHost>
    # container, they will be logged here.  Contrariwise, if you *do*
    # define per-<VirtualHost> access logfiles, transactions will be
    # logged therein and *not* in this file.
    #
    CustomLog "/var/log/httpd/access_log" common

    #
    # If you prefer a logfile with access, agent, and referer information
    # (Combined Logfile Format) you can use the following directive.
    #
    #CustomLog "/var/log/httpd/access_log" combined
</IfModule>

<IfModule alias_module>
    #
    # Redirect: Allows you to tell clients about documents that used to 
    # exist in your server's namespace, but do not anymore. The client 
    # will make a new request for the document at its new location.
    # Example:
    # Redirect permanent /foo http://www.example.com/bar

    #
    # Alias: Maps web paths into filesystem paths and is used to
    # access content that does not live under the DocumentRoot.
    # Example:
    # Alias /webpath /full/filesystem/path
    #
    # If you include a trailing / on /webpath then the server will
    # require it to be present in the URL.  You will also likely
    # need to provide a <Directory> section to allow access to
    # the filesystem path.

    #
    # ScriptAlias: This controls which directories contain server scripts. 
    # ScriptAliases are essentially the same as Aliases, except that
    # documents in the target directory are treated as applications and
    # run by the server when requested rather than as documents sent to the
    # client.  The same rules about trailing "/" apply to ScriptAlias
    # directives as to Alias.
    #
    ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ "/srv/httpd/cgi-bin/"


</IfModule>

<IfModule cgid_module>
    #
    # ScriptSock: On threaded servers, designate the path to the UNIX
    # socket used to communicate with the CGI daemon of mod_cgid.
    #
    #Scriptsock cgisock
</IfModule>

#
# "/srv/httpd/cgi-bin" should be changed to whatever your ScriptAliased
# CGI directory exists, if you have that configured.
#
	
<Directory "/srv/httpd/cgi-bin">
    AllowOverride None
    Options +ExecCGI
    AddHandler cgi-script .cgi .pl 
    Require all granted
</Directory>
	

<IfModule headers_module>
    #
    # Avoid passing HTTP_PROXY environment to CGI's on this or any proxied
    # backend servers which have lingering "httpoxy" defects.
    # 'Proxy' request header is undefined by the IETF, not listed by IANA
    #
    RequestHeader unset Proxy early
</IfModule>

<IfModule mime_module>
    #
    # TypesConfig points to the file containing the list of mappings from
    # filename extension to MIME-type.
    #
    TypesConfig /etc/httpd/mime.types

    #
    # AddType allows you to add to or override the MIME configuration
    # file specified in TypesConfig for specific file types.
    #
    #AddType application/x-gzip .tgz
    #
    # AddEncoding allows you to have certain browsers uncompress
    # information on the fly. Note: Not all browsers support this.
    #
    #AddEncoding x-compress .Z
    #AddEncoding x-gzip .gz .tgz
    #
    # If the AddEncoding directives above are commented-out, then you
    # probably should define those extensions to indicate media types:
    #
    AddType application/x-compress .Z
    AddType application/x-gzip .gz .tgz

    #
    # AddHandler allows you to map certain file extensions to "handlers":
    # actions unrelated to filetype. These can be either built into the server
    # or added with the Action directive (see below)
    #
    # To use CGI scripts outside of ScriptAliased directories:
    # (You will also need to add "ExecCGI" to the "Options" directive.)
    #
    #AddHandler cgi-script .cgi

    # For type maps (negotiated resources):
    #AddHandler type-map var

    #
    # Filters allow you to process content before it is sent to the client.
    #
    # To parse .shtml files for server-side includes (SSI):
    # (You will also need to add "Includes" to the "Options" directive.)
    #
    #AddType text/html .shtml
    #AddOutputFilter INCLUDES .shtml
</IfModule>

#
# The mod_mime_magic module allows the server to use various hints from the
# contents of the file itself to determine its type.  The MIMEMagicFile
# directive tells the module where the hint definitions are located.
#
#MIMEMagicFile /etc/httpd/magic

#
# Customizable error responses come in three flavors:
# 1) plain text 2) local redirects 3) external redirects
#
# Some examples:
#ErrorDocument 500 "The server made a boo boo."
#ErrorDocument 404 /missing.html
#ErrorDocument 404 "/cgi-bin/missing_handler.pl"
#ErrorDocument 402 http://www.example.com/subscription_info.html
#

#
# MaxRanges: Maximum number of Ranges in a request before
# returning the entire resource, or one of the special
# values 'default', 'none' or 'unlimited'.
# Default setting is to accept 200 Ranges.
#MaxRanges unlimited

#
# EnableMMAP and EnableSendfile: On systems that support it, 
# memory-mapping or the sendfile syscall may be used to deliver
# files.  This usually improves server performance, but must
# be turned off when serving from networked-mounted 
# filesystems or if support for these functions is otherwise
# broken on your system.
# Defaults: EnableMMAP On, EnableSendfile Off
#
#EnableMMAP off
#EnableSendfile on

# Supplemental configuration
#
# The configuration files in the /etc/httpd/extra/ directory can be 
# included to add extra features or to modify the default configuration of 
# the server, or you may simply copy their contents here and change as 
# necessary.

# Server-pool management (MPM specific)
#Include /etc/httpd/extra/httpd-mpm.conf

# Multi-language error messages
#Include /etc/httpd/extra/httpd-multilang-errordoc.conf

# Fancy directory listings
#Include /etc/httpd/extra/httpd-autoindex.conf

# Language settings
#Include /etc/httpd/extra/httpd-languages.conf

# User home directories
#Include /etc/httpd/extra/httpd-userdir.conf

# Real-time info on requests and configuration
#Include /etc/httpd/extra/httpd-info.conf

# Virtual hosts
#Include /etc/httpd/extra/httpd-vhosts.conf

# Local access to the Apache HTTP Server Manual
#Include /etc/httpd/extra/httpd-manual.conf

# Distributed authoring and versioning (WebDAV)
#Include /etc/httpd/extra/httpd-dav.conf

# Various default settings
#Include /etc/httpd/extra/httpd-default.conf

# Configure mod_proxy_html to understand HTML4/XHTML1
<IfModule proxy_html_module>
Include /etc/httpd/extra/proxy-html.conf
</IfModule>

# Secure (SSL/TLS) connections
#Include /etc/httpd/extra/httpd-ssl.conf
#
# Note: The following must must be present to support
#       starting without SSL on platforms with no /dev/random equivalent
#       but a statically compiled-in mod_ssl.
#
<IfModule ssl_module>
SSLRandomSeed startup builtin
SSLRandomSeed connect builtin
</IfModule>


# Uncomment the following line to enable PHP:
#
#Include /etc/httpd/mod_php.conf

# Uncomment the following lines (and mod_dav above) to enable svn support:
#
#LoadModule dav_svn_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_dav_svn.so
#LoadModule authz_svn_module lib/httpd/modules/mod_authz_svn.so
   

Page created on 14 Feb 2016 and